1. LCD (liquid crystal display) modules are very commonly used in most embedded projects, the reason being its cheap price, availability and programmer-friendly.
  2. 16×2 LCD is named so because it has 16 Columns and 2 Rows.
  1. Operating Voltage is 4.7V to 5.3V
  2. Current consumption is 1mA without backlight
  3. Alphanumeric LCD display module, meaning can display alphabets and numbers
  4. Consists of two rows and each row can print 16 characters.
  5. Each character is built by a 5×8 pixel box
  6. Can work on both 8-bit and 4-bit mode
  7. It can also display any custom generated characters
  8. Available in Green and Blue Backlight.
  1. Liquid crystal thermometer
  2. Optical imaging
  3. The liquid crystal display technique is also applicable in visualization of the radio frequency waves in the waveguide
  4. Used in the medical applications.


#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

// initialize the library by associating any needed LCD interface pin
// with the arduino pin number it is connected to
const int rs = 12, en = 11, d4 = 5, d5 = 4, d6 = 3, d7 = 2;
LiquidCrystal lcd(rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7);

void setup() {
// set up the LCD's number of columns and rows:
lcd.begin(16, 2);
// Print a message to the LCD.
lcd.print("hey,i am working!");

void loop() {
// set the cursor to column 0, line 1
// (note: line 1 is the second row, since counting begins with 0):
lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
// print the number of seconds since reset:
lcd.print(millis() / 1000);